A dataset with developmental scores at the item level for 2389 children measured at 4176 visits (rows) between ages 0.3-4.0 year, with up to four visits per child.



A data.frame with 4176 rows and 363 variables:

ctrcdchrCountry code (ISO 3166-1 alpha-3)
cohortchrCohort name
cohortnchrCohort number
subjidintChild number
agedaysintAge (days)
sexchrEither "male" or "female"
gagebrthintGestational age (days)
by1mdd0370/1Reaches for dangling ring
by1mdd0380/1Pushes car along
by1mdd0390/1Fingers hand in play
by1mdd0400/1Head follows dangling ring
by1mdd0410/1Head follows vanishing spoon
by1mdd0420/1Aware of strange situation
by1mdd0430/1Manipulates table edge slightly
by1mdd0440/1Carries ring to mouth
by1mdd0450/1inspects own hand
by1mdd0460/1Closes on dangling ring (check hand preference)
by1mdd0470/1turns head to sound of bell
by1mdd0480/1turns head to sound of rattle
by1mdd0490/1reaches for cube
by1mdd0500/1manipulates table edge actively
by1mdd0510/1eye-hand coordination in reaching
by1mdd0520/1regards pellet
by1mdd0530/1mirror image approach
by1mdd0540/1picks up cube (check hand preference)
by1mdd0550/1Vocalises attitudes
by1mdd0560/1retains 2 cubes
by1mdd0570/1exploitive paper play
by1mdd0580/1Discriminates strangers
by1mdd0600/1reaches persistently
by1mdd0610/1Likes frolic play
by1mdd0620/1turns head after fallen spoon
by1mdd0630/1lifts inverted cup
by1mdd0640/1reaches for second cube
by1mdd0650/1smiles at mirror (5.4 months)
by1mdd0660/1bangs in play
by1mdd0670/1sustained inspection of ring
by1mdd0680/1exploitive string play
by1mdd0690/1transfers objects hand to hand
by1mdd0700/1picks up cube deftly and directly
by1mdd0710/1pulls string: secures ring
by1mdd0720/1interest in sound production
by1mdd0730/1lifts cup with handle
by1mdd0740/1attends to scribbling
by1mdd0750/1looks for fallen spoon
by1mdd0760/1playful response to mirror
by1mdd0770/1retains 2 of 3 cubes offered
by1mdd0780/1manipulates bell: insterest in details
by1mdd0790/1vocalizes 4 different syllables
by1mdd0800/1pulls string adaptively: secures ring
by1mdd0810/1cooperates in games (is this some other scale?)
by1mdd0820/1attempts to secure 3 cubes
by1mdd0830/1rings bell purposely
by1mdd0840/1listens selectively with familiar words
by1mdd0850/1says "da-da" or equivalent
by1mdd0860/1Uncovers toy (check manual if by pulling cloth
by1mdd0870/1fingers holes in pegboard
by1mdd0880/1picks up cup, secures cube
by1mdd0890/1responds to verbal request
by1mdd0900/1puts cube in cup on command
by1mdd0910/1looks for content of box
by1mdd0920/1stirs with spoon in imitation
by1mdd0930/1looks at pictures in book
by1mdd0940/1inhibits on command
by1mdd0950/1attempting to imitate scribble
by1mdd0960/1unwraps cube
by1mdd0970/1repeats performance laughed at
by1mdd0980/1holds crayon adaptively
by1mdd0990/1pushes car along
by1mdd1000/1puts 3 or more cubes in cup
by1mdd1010/1jabbers expressively
by1mdd1020/1uncovers blue box
by1mdd1030/1turns pages of books
by1mdd1040/1Pats toy (whistle doll) in imitation
by1mdd1050/1dangles ring by string
by1mdd1060/1imitates words
by1mdd1070/1puts beads in box (6 of 8)
by1mdd1080/1places 1 peg repeateadly
by1mdd1090/1removes pellet from bottle
by1mdd1100/1blue board: places 1 round block
by1mdd1110/1builds tower of 2 cubes
by1mdd1120/1scribbles sponstaneously
by1mdd1130/1says 2 words
by1mdd1140/1puts 9 cubes in cup
by1mdd1150/1closes round box
by1mdd1160/1uses gestures to make wants known
by1mdd1170/1shows shoes or other clothing, or own toy
by1mdd1180/1pegs placed in 70 seconds
by1mdd1190/1builds tower of 3 cubes
by1mdd1200/1pink board: places round block
by1mdd1210/1blue board: places 2 round blocks
by1mdd1220/1attains toy with stick
by1mdd1230/1pegs placed in 42 seconds
by1mdd1240/1names 1 object
by1mdd1250/1imitates crayon stroke
by1pdd0160/1Ulnar-palmar prehension
by1pdd0170/1Sits with slight support
by1pdd0180/1Head balanced
by1pdd0190/1Turns from back to side
by1pdd0200/1Lifts head, dorsal position
by1pdd0210/1Partial thumb opposition
by1pdd0220/1Pulls to sitting
by1pdd0230/1Sits momentarily
by1pdd0240/1Unilateral reaching
by1pdd0250/1Attempts to secure pellet
by1pdd0260/1Rotates wrist
by1pdd0270/1Sits alone 30 seconds
by1pdd0280/1Rolls from back to stomach
by1pdd0290/1Sits steadily
by1pdd0300/1Scoops pellet
by1pdd0310/1Sits good coordination
by1pdd0320/1Complete thumb opposition
by1pdd0340/1Early stepping movements
by1pdd0350/1Partial finger prehension
by1pdd0360/1Pulls to stand
by1pdd0370/1Raise self to sitting
by1pdd0380/1Stands up by furniture
by1pdd0390/1Combine midline
by1pdd0400/1Stepping movements
by1pdd0410/1Fine prehension
by1pdd0420/1Walks with help
by1pdd0430/1Sits down
by1pdd0440/1Play clap hands
by1pdd0450/1Stands alone
by1pdd0460/1Walks alone
by1pdd0470/1Stands up
by1pdd0480/1Throws ball
by1pdd0490/1Walsk sideways
by1pdd0500/1Walks backwards
by1pdd0510/1Stands on right foot with help
by1pdd0520/1Stands on left foot with help
by1pdd0530/1Walsk up stairs with help
by1pdd0540/1Walks down stairs with help
gricgd0040/1Holds rod put in hand (see E7)
gricgd0060/1Plays with own fingers
gricgd0070/1Resists withdrawal of rod
gricgd0080/1Claps cube put in hand
gricgd0090/1Reaches to Paper III - Pulls it away
gricgd0100/1Shows interest in box
gricgd0110/1(Performance) Holds 2 cubes.
gricgd0120/1(Performance) Takes cube or toy from table
gricgd0130/1(Performance) Passes toy from hand to hand
gricgd0140/1Drops one cube for third
gricgd0150/1Manipulates 2 objects at once
gricgd0160/1Reacts to Paper IV - Plays with, crumbles, etc.
gricgd0170/1Lifts inverted cup in search of toy
gricgd0180/1Rattles box
gricgd0190/1Lifts lid off box
gricgd0200/1(Performance) Clicks 2 bricks together
gricgd0210/1Tries to take cubes out of box
gricgd0220/1Finds toy under cup
gricgd0230/1(Performance) Accepts 3rd cube without dropping
gricgd0240/1Manipulates box, lid and cubes
gricgd2010/1Remove both cubes from box (shown)
gricgd2020/1Unwraps and finds toy
gricgd2030/1One circle board - 2 trials
gricgd2040/1Opens 2 boxes
gricgd2050/1Puts cubes in and out of boxes in play
gricgd2060/1Puts 2 cubes back into one box when encouraged to do so
gricgd2070/1Two circle board - one in
gricgd2080/1Square board - 2 trials
gricgd2090/1Two circle board - two in
gricgd2100/1Can put lid back on box
gricgd2110/1(Performance) Three hole board - one in.
griehd0050/1Follows a bell-ring - vomed in a complete circle
griehd0060/1Glances from one object to another
griehd0070/1Watches objects pulled along by string
griehd0080/1Visually explores new environment
griehd0090/1Reaches for ring and grasps
griehd0100/1Secures dangling ring
griehd0110/1Hands explore table surface
griehd0120/1Plays with ring - shaking bells, banging, etc.
griehd0130/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Looks for falling object
griehd0140/1Strikes one object with another
griehd0150/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Forefinger and thumb partly spe
griehd0160/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Secures ring by means of strin
griehd0170/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Fine prehension.
griehd0180/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Dangles ring by the string
griehd0190/1Throws object
griehd0200/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Thumb opposition complete.
griehd0210/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Can point with index finger.
griehd0220/1Interest in motor car
griehd0230/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Can hold pencil as if to mark o
griehd0240/1Likes holding little toys
griehd2010/1Uses pencil on paper a little
griehd2020/1Shows preference for one hand
griehd2030/1Plays rolling a ball
griehd2040/1Can hold 4 cubes in hands at once
griehd2050/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Plays pushing little cars along
griehd2060/1Places one box, lid or brick upon another
griehd2080/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Pulls paper or cloth to get toy
griehd2090/1(Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Scribbles more freely, and deli
griehd2100/1Constructive play with boxes or other materials
griehd2120/1Builds tower of 3 bricks
grigmd0050/1Lifts head when in dorsal position
grigmd0060/1Back firm when held in siting position
grigmd0070/1Lifts head and chest when prone
grigmd0080/1Can hold head erect continuously
grigmd0090/1Lifts head and shoulders when in dorsal position
grigmd0100/1Can roll from side to side
grigmd0110/1Crawling Reaction I: Draws up knee
grigmd0120/1(Locomotor) Sits with slight support.
grigmd0130/1(Locomotor) Can roll from back to stomach, etc.
grigmd0140/1Crawling Reaction II: Tries vigorously to crawl
grigmd0150/1(Locomotor) Sits alone for a short time
grigmd0160/1(Locomotor) Stepping reaction - one foot in front of the oth
grigmd0170/1(Locomotor) Can be left sitting on the floor.
grigmd0180/1Stands when held up
grigmd0190/1Crawling Reaction III: Makes some progress forwards or backw
grigmd0200/1Sits well in a chair
grigmd0210/1(Locomotor) Pulls self up and stands holding on to furniture
grigmd0220/1(Locomotor) Crawling Reaction IV: Creeps on hands and knees
grigmd0230/1(Locomotor) Side-steps around inside cot or play-pen holding
grigmd0240/1(Locomotor) Can walk when led.
grigmd2010/1Climbs on a low ledge or step
grigmd2020/1(Locomotor) Stands alone
grigmd2030/1(Locomotor) Takes a few steps alone
grigmd2040/1Kneels on floor or chair
grigmd2050/1Climbs - stairs (up)
grigmd2060/1Likes pushing pram, toy horse, etc.
grigmd2070/1(Locomotor) Walks alone well
grigmd2080/1(Locomotor) Stoops.
grigmd2100/1Climbs into a low armchair
grigmd2110/1(Locomotor) Can walk backwards a few steps
grihsd0040/1Searches for sound with eyes
grihsd0050/1(Hearing and Speech) Makes 2 + different speech sounds
grihsd0060/1Listens to music
grihsd0070/1Searches for sound with head movements
grihsd0080/1Listens to tuning fork
grihsd0090/1(Hearing and Speech)Turns head deliberately to bell
grihsd0100/1Coos or stops crying on hearing music
grihsd0110/1Talks (babbles) to person
grihsd0120/1Makes 4+ different sounds.
grihsd0130/1Responds when called
grihsd0140/12 syllable babble
grihsd0150/1Listens to conversations
grihsd0160/1(Hearing and Speech) Babbled phrases: 4 + syllables
grihsd0170/1(Hearing and Speech) Says Mama or Dada, etc. (one word clear
grihsd0180/1Listens to stop watch
grihsd0190/1(Hearing and Speech) Rings the bell
grihsd0200/1Shakes head for no
grihsd0210/1says 2 clear words
grihsd0220/1Short babbled sentences of 6+ syllables
grihsd0230/1Babbled monologue when alone
grihsd0240/1Says three clear words
grihsd2010/1Looks at pictures for a sew seconds
grihsd2020/1Tries definitely to sing
grihsd2030/1(Hearing and Speech)Knows own name.
grihsd2040/1Likes rhymes and jingles
grihsd2060/1Uses 4 clear words
grihsd2070/1(Hearing and Speech) One object in box identified
grihsd2090/1Long babbled sentences - some words clear
grihsd2100/1Enjoys pictre book
grihsd2110/1Uses 6 or 7 clear words
grihsd2120/1Two objects in box identified
sgrehd0090/1Grasps ring
sgrehd0120/1Carries ring to mouth
sgrehd0130/1Clutches ring
sgrehd0170/1Reaches for string
sgrehd0200/1Watches scribble
sgrehd0250/1Pulls toy by string
sgrfmd0080/1Looks at box on table
sgrfmd0110/1Drops one block for second
sgrfmd0160/1Grasps box.
sgrfmd0170/1Manipulates cube
sgrfmd0180/1Takes paper
sgrgmd0060/1Active in bath
sgrgmd0080/1Rolls from side to back
sgrgmd0140/1Plays with own toes
sgrgmd0180/1Stepping movements
sgrgmd0220/1Can turn on floor
sgrgmd0280/1Can stand next to furniture
sgrhsd0100/1Laughs aloud
sgrhsd0150/1Manipulates bell
sgrhsd0190/1Shouts for attention
sgrhsd0210/1Singing tones
sgrhsd0290/1Reacts to music
sgrred0060/1Vocalises when spoken to
sgrred0070/1Follows moving person
sgrred0080/1Coos and smiles
sgrred0090/1Friendly to strangers
sgrred0100/1Resist ring being taken away
sgrred0110/1Frolics when played with
sgrred0120/1Stops crying when spoken to
sgrred0130/1Turns head to person talking
sgrred0140/1Anticipate being lifted
sgrred0150/1Holds a spoon
sgrred0160/1Stretches to be taken
sgrred0170/1Drinks from a cup
sgrred0180/1Manipulates cup or spoon in play
sgrred0190/1Reacts to mirror image
sgrred0200/1Knows strangers
sgrred0220/1Displeased when toy taken
sgrred0230/1Helps hold cup
sgrred0240/1Pulls off hat
sgrred0250/1Smiles, plays mirror
sgrred0260/1Waves bye bye
sgrred0270/1Gives affection
sgrred0290/1Plays cup, saucer
sgrred0300/1Obeys simple requests
sgrred0310/1Pays pat-a-cake
sgrred0320/1Puts block in and out of cup
sgrred0330/1Helps dressing
sgrred0340/1Hold cup
sgrred0350/1Uses spoon
sgrred0360/1Shoes shoes
sgrred0370/1tries doorknob
sgrred0380/1sks toilet
sgrred0390/1Manages cup well
sgrred0400/1Can take off shoes and socks
sgrred0410/1Like book showing
vinxxc0020/1chew solid foods
vinxxc0030/1take off socks / shoes
vinxxc0040/1transfer objects
vinxxc0050/1overcome simple obstacles
vinxxc0060/1fetch something
vinxxc0070/1drink from cup / glass
vinxxc0080/1walk by his / herself
vinxxc0090/1get on with other children
vinxxc0100/1eat soft food with a spoon
vinxxc0110/1walk around the yard without supervision
vinxxc0120/1know what's edible
vinxxc0130/1use names of objects - shoe
vinxxc0140/1walk upstairs
vinxxc0150/1unwrap sweet
vinxxc0160/1use a short sentence
vinxxc0170/1ask or tell when it needs the toilet
vinxxc0180/1play by his / herself
vinxxc0190/1take off dress / shirt if buttons / zip undone
vinxxc0200/1get a cup of water without help
vinxxc0210/1dry hands after you have washed them
vinxxc0220/1avoid simple danger - knife / hot
vinxxc0230/1put on own dress / shirt
vinxxc0240/1tell you things / simple story
vinxxc0250/1walk downstairs
vinxxc0260/1play / do things with children - song
vinxxc0270/1put on own dress / shirt and do buttons
vinxxc0280/1help around the house / clear table
vinxxc0290/1perform for others stunts / rhymes
vinxxc0300/1wash hands and dry
vinxxc0310/1Play or do things with other children of same age eg sing so
vinxxc0320/1Use pencil or crayon for drawing
vinxxc0330/1Avoid simple dangers eg hot things, knives
vinxxc0340/1Buttons coat or dress
vinxxc0350/1Play competition exercise games eg skipping, marbles
vinxxc0360/1Walk down steps with one foot one ach step
vinxxc0370/1Dy hands without help
vinxxc0380/1Eat food with an implement
vinxxc0390/1Get a cup of water without help
vinxxc0400/1Help with little things around the house eg pick up things
vinxxc0410/1Tell things that happen or simple stories
vinxxc0420/1Put on jacket or dress without help except for zip or button
vinxxc0430/1Peform for other people, stunts, show off
vinxxc0440/1Use a pair of scissors without supervision
vinxxc0450/1Go to toilet by self, remove clothes, wipe
vinxxc0460/1Take off jacket or dress without help except for zip or butt
vinxxc0470/1Wash face without help
vinxxc0480/1Wash hands without help
vinxxc0490/1Play by themselves without supervision for short time
vinxxc0500/1Ask or tell when wants to go to toilet
vinxxc0510/1Generally dress self except for difficult fasteners


The combination of subjid and agedays identifies each unique visit (row).

Instruments: Bayley I (by1), Griffiths (gri), South African adapted Griffith (sgr), Vineland Social Maturity Scale (vin)


Richter L, Norris S, Pettifor J, Yach D, Cameron N. Cohort profile: Mandela’s children: the 1990 Birth to Twenty study in South Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2007;36:504-511.