The get_reference() function selects the D-score reference distribution.

get_reference(population = "phase1", references = dscore::builtin_references)



A string describing the population. Currently supported are "dutch", "gcdg" and "phase1". The default is "phase1", in sync with the default key = "gsed".


A data.frame with the same structure as builtin_references. The default is to use builtin_references.


A data.frame with the LMS reference values.


No references for population "gsed" exist. The function will silently rewrite population = "gsed" into to the population = "gsed".

The "dutch" reference was published in Van Buuren (2014) The "gcdg" was calculated from 15 cohorts with direct observations (Weber, 2019). The "phase1" references were calculated from the GSED Phase 1 validation data (GSED-BGD, GSED-PAK, GSED-TZA) cover age range 2w-3.5 years. The age range 3.5-5 yrs is linearly extrapolated and are only indicative.


Van Buuren S (2014). Growth charts of human development. Stat Methods Med Res, 23(4), 346-368.

Weber AM, Rubio-Codina M, Walker SP, van Buuren S, Eekhout I, Grantham-McGregor S, Caridad Araujo M, Chang SM, Fernald LCH, Hamadani JD, Hanlon A, Karam SM, Lozoff B, Ratsifandrihamanana L, Richter L, Black MM (2019). The D-score: a metric for interpreting the early development of infants and toddlers across global settings. BMJ Global Health, BMJ Global Health 4: e001724.